Literary criticism During his own lifetime and shortly afterward, Shakespeare enjoyed fame and considerable critical attention.
Many of the dates of play performances, when they were written, adapted or revised and printed are imprecise. This biography attempts only to give an overview of his life, while leaving the more learned perspectives to the countless scholars and historians who have devoted their lives to the study and demystification of the man and his works.
England's celebration of their patron Saint George is on 23 April, which is also the day claimed to be the birth date of Shakespeare. Although birth and death dates were not recorded in Shakespeare's time, churches did record baptisms and burials, usually a few days after the actual event.
He lived with his fairly well-to-do parents on Henley Street, the first of the four sons born to John Shakespeare c and Mary Arden cwho also had four daughters.
John Shakespeare was a local businessman and also involved in municipal affairs as Alderman and Bailiff, but a decline in his fortunes in his later years surely had an effect on William. In his younger years Shakespeare attended the Christian Holy Trinity church, the now famous elegant limestone cross shaped cathedral on the banks of the Avon river, studying the Book of Common Prayer and the English Bible.
In he became lay rector when he paid Pounds towards its upkeep, hence why he is buried in the chancel. Early on Shakespeare likely attended the Elizabethan theatrical productions of travelling theatre troups, come to Stratford to entertain the local official townsmen, including the Queen's Men, Worcester's Men, Leicester's Men, and Lord Strange's Men.
There is also the time when Queen Elizabeth herself visited nearby Kenilworth Castle and Shakespeare, said to have been duly impressed by the procession, recreated it in some of his later plays. Although enrolment registers did not survive, around the age of eleven Shakespeare probably entered the grammar school of Stratford, King's New School, where he would have studied theatre and acting, as well as Latin literature and history.
When he finished school he might have apprenticed for a time with his father, but there is also mention of his being a school teacher. Baptisms of three children were recorded; Susannawho went on to marry noted physician John Hall, and twins Judith who married Richard Quiney, and Hamnet his only son and heir who died at the age of eleven.
It is not exactly clear what Shakespeare was doing in the first few years after the marriage, but he did go to London and worked at The Globe theatre, possibly as one of the Queen's Men whose works were harshly anti Catholic in a time of rising Protestantism.
He was writing poems and plays, and his involvement with theatre troupes and acting is disparagingly condemned in a pamphlet that was distributed in London, attributed to Robert Green the playwright titled "Groats Worth of Witte" haughtily attacking Shakespeare as an "upstart crow"; "Yes trust them not: O that I might entreate your rare wits to be employed in more profitable courses: While it was a time for many upstart theatres, the popular public entertainment of the day, they were often shut down and forbidden to open for stretches of time.
Shakespeare probably spent these dark days travelling between London, Stratford, and the provinces, which gave him time to pen many more plays and sonnets. Among the first of his known printed works is the comedic and erotically charged Ovidian narrative poem Venus and Adonis It was wildly popular, dedicated with great esteem to his patron Henry Wriothesly, third earl of Southampton, the young man that some say Shakespeare may have had more than platonic affection for.
At this time of prolific writing, Shakespeare began his association until his death with The Lord Chamberlain's Men. With the accession of James I they became the King's Men, who bought and performed most of Shakespeare's plays.
The troupe included his friend and actor Richard Burbage. A few of his plays were printed in his lifetime, though they appeared more voluminously after his death, sometimes plagiarised and often changed at the whim of the printer.
First Folio would be the first collection of his dramatic works, a massive undertaking to compile thirty-six plays from the quarto texts, playbooks, transcriptions, and the memories of actors.
The approximately nine hundred page manuscript took about two years to complete and was printed in as Mr. It also featured on the frontispiece the famous engraved portrait of Shakespeare said to be by Martin Droeshout c Under the favour of the court The Kings' Men became the eminent company of the day.
Most likely Anne and the children lived in Stratford while Shakespeare spent his time travelling between Stratford and London, dealing with business affairs and writing and acting.
In his daughter Judith married Quiney who subsequently admitted to fornication with Margaret Wheeler, and Shakespeare took steps to bequeath a sum to Judith in her own name. William Shakespeare died on 23 Aprilaccording to his monument, and lies buried in the chancel of the Holy Trinity Church in Stratford upon Avon.
While there is little known of her life, Anne Hathaway outlived her husband by seven years, dying in and is buried beside him.
It is not clear as to how or why Shakespeare died, but in the reverend John Ward, vicar of Stratford recorded that "Shakespeare, Drayton and Ben Johnson had a merie meeting, and itt seems drank too hard, for Shakespeare died of a feavour there contracted.
Others were written or revised right before being printed. The order, dates, and authorship of the Sonnets have been much debated with no conclusive findings.
Many have claimed autobiographical details from them, including sonnet number in reference to Anne. The dedication to "Mr.
Regardless, there have been some unfortunate projections and interpretations of modern concepts onto centuries old works that, while a grasp of contextual historical information can certainly lend to their depth and meaning, can also be enjoyed as valuable poetical works that have transcended time and been surpassed by no other.
Evoking Petrarch's style and lyrically writing of beauty, mortality, and love with its moral anguish and worshipful adoration of a usually unattainable love, the first sonnets are addressed to a young man, sonnets to a dark lady.
Ever the dramatist Shakespeare created a profound intrigue to scholars and novices alike as to the identities of these people. Tragedies Some probably inspired by Shakespeare's study of Lives trans.
Some are reworkings of previous stories, many based on English or Roman history. The dates given here are when they are said to have been first performed, followed by approximate printing dates in brackets, listed in chronological order of performance.
Titus Andronicus first performed in printed inRomeo and JulietHamlet .> Analysis. Shakespeare and Censorship.
Greene’s literary executor, though he also joined John Heminge, a partner in the King’s Men, and William Johnson, the host of the Mermaid Tavern. For other Shakespeare resources, visit the Mr.
William Shakespeare and the Internet Web site. The original electronic source for this server was the Complete Moby(tm) Shakespeare. The HTML versions of the plays provided here are placed in the public domain. > Analysis. Shakespeare and Censorship. Greene’s literary executor, though he also joined John Heminge, a partner in the King’s Men, and William Johnson, the host of the Mermaid Tavern.
This article is a collection of critical quotations and other criticism against William Shakespeare and his works. Shakespeare enjoyed recognition in his own time, but in the 17th century, poets and authors began to consider him as the supreme dramatist and poet of all times of the English language.
Essays and criticism on William Shakespeare, including the works Henry IV, Parts I and II, As You Like It, Hamlet, The Tempest, Sonnets - Magill's Survey of World Literature.
William Shakespeare (), `The Bard of Avon', English poet and playwright wrote the famous Sonnets and numerous highly successful oft quoted dramatic works including the tragedy of the Prince of Denmark, Hamlet;.