Biography[ edit ] Harry Smith was born in Portland, Oregon, and spent his earliest years in Washington State in the area between Seattle and Bellingham. As a child he lived for a time with his family in Anacortes, Washingtona town on Fidalgo Islandwhere the Swinomish Indian reservation is located. His mother, Mary Louise, originally from Sioux City, Iowa, came from a long line of school teachers and herself taught for a time on the Lummi Indian reservation near Bellingham.
The word "bull" itself may have derived from the Old French bole meaning "fraud, deceit". An occasionally used South African English equivalent is "bull dust". Eliotwho between and wrote an early poem to which he gave the title "The Triumph of Bullshit", written in the form of a ballade.
The word bullshit does not appear in the text of the poem, and Eliot himself never published the poem. It describes this usage as being of unknown origin, but notes that in Old Frenchthe word could mean "boul, boule, bole fraud, deceit, trickery; mod. Another proposal, according to the lexicographer Eric Partridge, is that the term was popularized by the Australian and New Zealand troops from about arriving at the front during World War I.
Partridge claims that the British commanding officers placed emphasis on bull; that is, attention to appearances, even when it was a hindrance to waging war. The foreign Diggers allegedly ridiculed the British by calling it bullshit. On one prominent occasion, the word itself was part of a controversial advertisement.
During the U. CarterReagan and Andersonit's all bullshit!
The liar, Frankfurt holds, knows and cares about the truth, but deliberately sets out to mislead instead of telling the truth. The "bullshitter", on the other hand, does not care about the truth and is only seeking to impress: Producing bullshit requires no such conviction.
A person who lies is thereby responding to the truth, and he is to that extent respectful of it. When an honest man speaks, he says only what he believes to be true; and for the liar, it is correspondingly indispensable that he considers his statements to be false.
For the bullshitter, however, all these bets are off: His eye is not on the facts at all, as the eyes of the honest man and of the liar are, except insofar as they may be pertinent to his interest in getting away with what he says.
He does not care whether the things he says describe reality correctly. He just picks them out, or makes them up, to suit his purpose. Frankfurt connects this analysis of bullshit with Ludwig Wittgenstein 's disdain of "non-sense" talk, and with the popular concept of a "bull session" in which speakers may try out unusual views without commitment.
He fixes the blame for the prevalence of "bullshit" in modern society upon anti-realism and upon the growing frequency of situations in which people are expected to speak or have opinions without appropriate knowledge of the subject matter. Several political commentators have seen that Frankfurt's concept of bullshit provides insights into political campaigns.
Cohen points out that this sort of bullshit can be produced either accidentally or deliberately. While some writers do deliberately produce bullshit, a person can also aim at sense and produce nonsense by mistake; or a person deceived by a piece of bullshit can repeat it innocently, without intent to deceive others.
Sokal's aim in creating it, however, was to show that the "postmodernist" editors who accepted his paper for publication could not distinguish nonsense from sense, and thereby by implication that their field was "bullshit".
In everyday language Outside of the academic world, among natural speakers of North American Englishas an interjection or adjectivebullshit conveys general displeasure, an objection to, or points to unfairness within, some state of affairs.
This colloquial usage of "bullshit", which began in the 20th century, designates another's discourse to be rubbish or nonsense. The amount of energy needed to refute bullshit is an order of magnitude bigger than to produce it. It became especially popular after a picture of a presentation by Brandolini at XP on May 30,was posted on Twitter.On Bullshit - Kindle edition by Harry G.
Frankfurt. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. Use features like bookmarks, note taking and highlighting while reading On Bullshit.
From its earliest beginnings, the problem of "free will" has been intimately connected with the question of moral ardatayazilim.com of the ancient thinkers on the problem were trying to show that we humans have control over our decisions, that our actions "depend on us", and that they are not pre-determined by fate, by arbitrary gods, by logical necessity, or by a natural causal determinism.
Scholarship & Criticism Please note: Single texts in essay collections on Harry Potter are only listed under the title of the respective volume (and its first editor's name), *not* separately under their authors' names.
A tip: If you are looking for the latest literature on HP, use the search function (CTRL+F) to look for the date of publication, e. g.
Clarke's Bookshop (established in ) is situated in Cape Town, South Africa and carries both new and second hand books on Southern Africa. Pop music continues its march toward the middle, with well-crafted songs that lack individualism in an effort to appeal to everybody.
Closed off to the public for more than years, the tiny, eerie island – once home to a hospital for the insane – is set to be transformed.